segunda-feira, 15 de junho de 2015

Encerramento do Hipertrechos, criação do Infocacto

Estou encerrando o Hipertrechos e criando o Infocacto. O nome continua bizarro, mas é melhor que a primeira opção: "Infobagos! Mais um blog escroto sobre informação."

segunda-feira, 16 de junho de 2014

Human Culture

What is Culture?
photo of Edward. B. Tylor
  Edward B. Tylor

The word culture has many different meanings.  For some it refers to an appreciation of good literature, music, art, and food.  For a biologist, it is likely to be a colony of bacteria or other microorganisms growing in a nutrient medium in a laboratory Petri dish.  However, for anthropologists and other behavioral scientists,culture is the full range of learned human behavior patterns.  The term was first used in this way by the pioneer English Anthropologist Edward B. Tylor in his book, Primitive Culture, published in 1871.  Tylor said that culture is "that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society."  Of course, it is not limited to men.  Women possess and create it as well.  Since Tylor's time, the concept of culture has become the central focus of anthropology.
Culture is a powerful human tool for survival, but it is a fragile phenomenon.  It is constantly changing and easily lost because it exists only in our minds.  Our written languages, governments, buildings, and other man-made things are merely the products of culture.  They are not culture in themselves.  For this reason,archaeologists can not dig up culture directly in their excavations.  The broken pots and other artifacts of ancient people that they uncover are only material remains that reflect cultural patterns--they are things that were made and used through cultural knowledge and skills.

Layers of Culture
There are very likely three layers or levels of culture that are part of your learned behavior patterns and perceptions.  Most obviously is the body of cultural traditions that distinguish your specific society.  When people speak of Italian, Samoan, or Japanese culture, they are referring to the shared language, traditions, and beliefs that set each of these peoples apart from others.  In most cases, those who share your culture do so because they acquired it as they were raised by parents and other family members who have it.
graphic representation of sub-cultures within a culture
The second layer of culture that may be part of your identity is a subculture click this icon to hear the preceding term pronounced.  In complex, diverse societies in which people have come from many different parts of the world, they often retain much of their original cultural traditions.  As a result, they are likely to be part of an identifiable subculture in their new society.  The shared cultural traits of subcultures set them apart from the rest of their society.  Examples of easily identifiable subcultures in the United States include ethnic groups such as Vietnamese Americans, African Americans, and Mexican Americans.  Members of each of these subcultures share a common identity, food tradition, dialect or language, and other cultural traits that come from their common ancestral background and experience.  As the cultural differences between members of a subculture and the dominant national culture blur and eventually disappear, the subculture ceases to exist except as a group of people who claim a common ancestry.  That is generally the case with German Americans and Irish Americans in the United States today.  Most of them identify themselves as Americans first.  They also see themselves as being part of the cultural mainstream of the nation.
photo of four casually dressed Cuban American women These Cuban American
women in Miami, Florida
have a shared subculture
identity that is reinforced
through their language,
food, and other traditions
The third layer of culture consists of cultural universals.  These are learned behavior patterns that are shared by all of humanity collectively.  No matter where people live in the world, they share these universal traits.  Examples of such "human cultural" traits include:
communicating with a verbal language consisting of a limited set of sounds and grammatical rules for constructing sentences
using age and gender to classify people (e.g., teenager, senior citizen, woman, man)
classifying people based on marriage and descent relationships and having kinship terms to refer to
them (e.g., wife, mother, uncle, cousin)
raising children in some sort of family setting
having a sexual division of labor (e.g., men's work versus women's work)
having a concept of privacy
having rules to regulate sexual behavior
distinguishing between good and bad behavior
having some sort of body ornamentation
making jokes and playing games
having art
having some sort of leadership roles for the implementation of community decisions
While all cultures have these and possibly many other universal traits, different cultures have developed their own specific ways of carrying out or expressing them.  For instance, people in deaf subcultures frequently use their hands to communicate with sign language instead of verbal language.  However, sign languages have grammatical rules just as verbal ones do.

Culture and Society
Culture and society click this icon to hear the preceding term pronounced are not the same thing.  While cultures are complexes of learned behavior patterns and perceptions, societies are groups of interacting organisms.  People are not the only animals that have societies.  Schools of fish, flocks of birds, and hives of bees are societies.  In the case of humans, however, societies are groups of people who directly or indirectly interact with each other.  People in human societies also generally perceive that their society is distinct from other societies in terms of shared traditions and expectations.
While human societies and cultures are not the same thing, they are inextricably connected because culture is created and transmitted to others in a society.  Cultures are not the product of lone individuals.  They are the continuously evolving products of people interacting with each other.  Cultural patterns such as language and politics make no sense except in terms of the interaction of people.  If you were the only human on earth, there would be no need for language or government.

Is Culture Limited to Humans?
 photo of an orangutan mother with a baby on her back Non-human culture? 
This orangutan mother is
using a specially prepared
stick to "fish out" food from
a crevice.  She learned this
skill and is now teaching it
to her child who is hanging
on her shoulder and intently
There is a difference of opinion in the behavioral sciences about whether or not we are the only animal that creates and uses culture.  The answer to this question depends on how narrow culture is defined.  If it is used broadly to refer to a complex of learned behavior patterns, then it is clear that we are not alone in creating and using culture.  Many other animal species teach their young what they themselves learned in order to survive.  This is especially true of the chimpanzees and other relatively intelligent apes and monkeys.  Wild chimpanzee mothers typically teach their children about several hundred food and medicinal plants.  Their children also have to learn about the dominance hierarchy and the social rules within their communities.  As males become teenagers, they acquire hunting skills from adults.  Females have to learn how to nurse and care for their babies.  Chimpanzees even have to learn such basic skills as how to perform sexual intercourse.  This knowledge is not hardwired into their brains at birth.  They are all learned patterns of behavior just as they are for humans.

quarta-feira, 11 de junho de 2014

Referências sobre teorias da aprendizagem

Cá estava eu dando uma rápida pesquisada sobre as obras do Max Wertheimer quando dei de cara com um site com várias referência sobre aprendizagem.

Learning theory references

Anderson, J. (1976). Language, Memory and Thought. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum Associates. 

Anderson, J. (1983). The Architecture of Cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 

Anderson, J. (1990). The Adaptive Character of Thought. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum Associates. 

Anderson, J. (1993). Rules of the Mind. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. 

Anderson, J.R. ( 1995). Cognitive Psychology and its Implications, Fourth Edition. New York: W.H.Freeman & Company. 

Anderson, R.C. (1977). The notion of schemata and the educational enterprise. In R. C. Anderson, R. J. Spiro, & W. E. Montague (Eds.). Schooling 
and the acquisition of knowldege. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. 

Argyris, C. and Schön, D. (1974) Theory in Practice. Increasing professional effectiveness, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 

Argyris, C. (1993) Knowledge for Action. A guide to overcoming barriers to organizational change, San Francisco: Jossey Bass. 

Armstrong, Thomas. (n.d.) Multiple intelligences and adult learning. Retrieved January 11, 2002, from 

Ausubel, D.P. (2000). The Acquisition and Retention of Knowledge: A Cognitive View: Springer 

Bache, C. M. (n.d.). What is transformational learning? Retrieved September 13, 2001, from: 

Bandura, A. (1986). Social Foundations of Thought and Action. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. 

Baumgartner, L. M. (2001). An update on transformational learning. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 89, 15-24. Retrieved September 24, 2001 from 

Boeree, C. G. (1998). B. F. Skinner. Retrieved September 19, 2003 from 

Boggs, D. L. (1981). Philosophies at issue. In Kreitlow, B.W. (ed) Examining controversies in adult education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 

Brookfield, S. (1995). Postscript: An agenda for research and policy. In A. Tuinjman (ed.) International Encyclopedia of Education. Oxford: Pergamon Press. 

Brooks, C. T. (n.d.). Component Display Theory. Retrieved March 1, 2003 from 

Brown, J. O. (2002). Know thyself: The impact of portfolio development on adult learning. Adult Education Quarterly, 53(3), 228-245. 

Brown, J. S., Collins, A., and Diguid, P. (n.d.) Situated Cognition and the Culture of Learning. Retrieved 3/21/03 from 

Bruner, J. (1960). The Process of Education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press 

Bruner, J. (1996). The Culture of Education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press 

Campbell, R. L. (2002). Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique. Retreived from the World Wide Web September 21, 2003 from 

Campbell, L., Campbell, B., Dickinson, D. (1999). Teaching and Learning through multiple intelligences. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon 

Cena, M. & Mitchell, J. (1998). Anchored instruction: A model for integrating the language arts through content area study. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 41, 559-561. 

Clark, M. C. (1993). Transformational learning, New Directions For Adult And Continuing Education, (57), 47-56. 

Collins, A., Brown, J. S., and Holum A. (1991). Cognitive Apprenticeship: Making Thinking Visible. American Educator, Winter 1991. retrieved 3/21/03 from 

Costanzo, M. and Paxton, D. (1999). Multiple assessments for multiple intelligences. Focus On Basics, 3(1). Retrieved January 21, 2002 from 

Coustan, T. and Rocka, L. (1999). Putting theory into practice. Focus on Basics 3(1). Retrieved January 21, 2002 from 

Craig, B. (n.d.) Cognitive Dissonance Theory: Leon Festinger 1919-1989. Retrieved October 21, 2003 from the World Wide Web from 

Craik, F.I.M. (2002). Levels of processing: Past, present ... and future? Memory, 10, 305–318. [Link to] 

Cranton, P. (1994). Understanding and promoting transformative learning: A guide for educators of adults. San Francisco CA: Jossey-Bass. 

Craik, F.I.M. & Lockhart, R. S. (1972). Levels of processing: A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 11, 671 - 684. 

Cross, K. P. (1981). Adults as Learners. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 

Crotty, T. (1993). The Constructivist Paradigm. Retrieved from the world wide web January 21, 2003 from 

Daloz, L. (1986). Effective teaching and mentoring: Realizing the transformational Power of adult learning experiences. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 

Daloz, L.A. (1999). Mentor: Guiding the journey of adult learners. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 

DeMar, G. (n.d.). Behaviorism.Retrieved September 19, 2003, from 

Dirkx, J. M. (1997). Nurturing the soul in adult learning. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 74, 79-88. Retrieved September 24, 2001, from ERIC database EJ554987 

Dougiamas, M. (1998). A Journey into Constructivism. Retrieved January 21, 2003 from the World Wide Web 

Driscoll, M. P. (2000). Psychology of Learning for Instruction, 2nd Edition. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. 

Flavell, J. H. (1963). The developmental psychology of Jean Piaget. New York: D.Van Nostrand. 

Flavell, J. H. (1971). First discussant's comments: What is memory development the development of? Human Development, 14, 272-278. 

Flavell, J. H. (1976). Metacognitive aspects of problem solving. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), The nature of intelligence (pp.231-236). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum 

Flavell, J. H. (1979). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive-developmental inquiry. American Psychologist, 34, 906 - 911. 

Flavell, J.H. (1981). Cognitive monitoring. In W. P. Dickson (Ed.), Children's oral communication skills (pp.35 - 60). New York: Academic Press. 

Flavell, J. H. (1987) Speculation about the nature and development of metacognition. In F. Weinert & R. Kluwe (Eds.), Metacognition, motivation, and understanding (pp.21 - 29). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. 

Gagne, R. M. (1970). The Conditions of Learning (2nd ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. 

Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic books. 

Gardner, H. (1999). Intelligence reframed: Multiple intelligences for the 21st century. New York: Basic Books. 

Guilford, J. P. (1982). The structure of intellect. columbus, OH: Merrill. 

Hanley, S. (1994). On Constructivism. Maryland Collaborative for Teacher Preparation, College Park, MD. Retrieved from the world wide web January 21, 2003 from 

Harley, T.A. (1995). The Psychology of Language from Data to Theory. Erlbaum (UK): Taylor & Francis. 

Harnad, S. (1985). D. O. Hebb: Father of Cognitive Psychobiology. Retrieved from the World Wide Web October 3, 2003 from 

Hebb, D. O. (1949). The Organization of Behavior: A neuropsychological theory. New York: Wiley. 

Hergenhahn, B. B. (1988). An Introduction to the Theories of Learning. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. 

Holmes, G. and Abington-Cooper, M. (2000). Pedagogy vs. andragogy: A false dichotomy? The Journal of Technology Studies, 26:2. Retrieved 01/11/02 from 

Imel, S. (1998). Transformative learning in adulthood. Columbus, OH: ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult Career and Vocational Education, ERIC Digest No. 200, (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED423426). Retrieved September 13, 2001 from 

Kallenbach, S. (1999). Emerging themes in adult multiple intelligences research. Focus on Basics, 3(1). Retreived January 21, 2002 from 

Kearsley, G. (n.d.) Cognitive Dissonance. Retrieved 11/09/2002 from 

Kearsley, G. (n.d.) Contiguity Theory (E. Guthrie). Retrieved November 9, /2002 from 

Koffka, K. (1963). Principles of Gestalt psychology. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World. (Original work published in 1935) 

Kohler, W. (1947). Gestalt psychology: An introduction to new concepts in modern psychology (rev. ed.) New York: Liveright. 

Kolb, D. A. 1981. Learning Style Inventory: Self-Scoring Inventory and Interpretation Booklet. Boston, MA: McBer & Company. 

Knowles, M.S. (1980). The modern practice of adult education. New York: Cambridge, The Adult Education Company. 

Knowles, M.S. (1984). Andragogy in Action. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 

Koffka, K. (1935). Principles of Gestalt Psychology. Retrieved 11/2/2002 from the Gestalt Archive, 

Kolb, D. A. (1984) Experiential Learning. Experience as the source of learning and development, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. 

Kroth, M., & Boverie, P. (2000). Life mission and adult learning. Adult Education Quarterly, 50(2), 134-149. 

Kruse, K. (n.d.). Gagne's Nine Events of Instruction: An Introduction. Retreived from the World Wide Web, November 2, 2002, from 

Landa, L. (1974). Algorithmnization in Learning and Instruction. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications. 

Landa, L. N. (1999). Landamatics instructional design theory and methodology for teaching general methods of thinking. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models: A new paradigm of instructional theory. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 

Lebow, D. (1993). Constructivist values for instructional systems design: Five principles toward a new mindset. Educational Technology Research and Development, 41 (3), 4-16. 

Lefrancois, G.R. (1972). Psychological Theories and Human Learning: Kongor's Report. Monterey CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company 

Lefton, L. A. (1997). Psychology: Annotated Instructor's Edition, 6th Edition. Needham Heights MA: Allyn & Bacon. 

McCarthy, B. (1987). The 4Mat system: Teaching to learning styles with right/left mode techniques. Barrington, IL: Excel Inc. 

McKenzie, W. (1999). Multiple Intelligences Survey. Retrieved 01/11/2002 from 

McLellan, H. (Ed.). (1996). Situated learning perspectives. Englewood Cliffs: NJ: Educational Technology Publications. 

Merriam, S.B. and Caffarella, R. S. (1991). Learning in Adulthood: A Comprehensive Guide. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers. 

Merrill, M. David. Component Display Theory. Retrieved September 19, 2003 from 

Mezirow, J. D. (1981). A critical theory of adult learning and education. Adult Education Quarterly, 32(1), 3-24. 

Mezirow, J. (1991) Transformative Dimensions of Adult Learning. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. 

Mezirow, J (1997). Transformative learning: Theory to practice. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 74, 5-12. 

Miller, G.A. (1956). The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review, 63, 81-97. 

Miller, G.A., Galanter, E., & Pribram, K.H. (1960). Plans and the Structure of Behavior. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. 

Myers, D. G. (1999). Exploring Psychology, 4th Edition. New York: Worth Publishing. 

Pavio, A. (1986). Mental representations: A dual coding approach. New York: Oxford University Press 

Reigeluth, C. R. (n.d.). What Is the New Paradigm of Instructional Theory? Retrueved from the World Wide Web September 19, 2003, 

Roberts, T. B (1989). Multistate education: Metacognitive implications of the mind-body psychotechnologies. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 21(1), 83-102 

Rogers, C. R. (1983). Freedom to Learn for the 80's. Columbus: Merrill. 

Ryu,J., Lai,t., Colaric, S., Cawley,J., & Aldag, H. (2000). Dual Coding Theory. Retrieved from the World Wide Web September 29, 2003 from 

Sahakian, W.S. (1976). Introduction to the Psychology of Learning. Chicago: Rand McNally Company. 

Santrock, J.W. (1988). Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behavior, 2nd Edition. Dubuque IA: Wm. C. Brown Publisher 

Schank, R.C. (1991). Tell Me a Story: A New Look at Real and Artificial Intelligence. New York: Simon & Schuster. 

Spiro, R. J., Feltovich, P.J., Jacobson, M.J., & Coulson, R. L. (1991). Knowledge Representation, Content Specification, and the Development of 

Skill in Situation-Specific Knowledge Assembly: Some Constructivist Issues as They Relate to Cognitive Flexibility Theory and Hypertext. In T. Duffy & D. H. Jonassen, Constructivism and the Technology of Instruction A Conversation. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Erlbaum. 

Spiro, R.J., Feltovich, P.J., Jacobson, M.J., & Coulson, R.L. (1991, May). Cognitive flexibility, constructivism, and hypertext: Random access instruction for advanced knowledge acquisition in ill-structure domains. Educational Technology. Retrieved September 15, 2003 from the World Wide Web: 

Stein, D. (1998). Situated Learning in Adult Education. ERIC Digest #195. Retrieved November 2, 2002, from 

Sternberg, R. J. (1990). Intellectual styles: Theory and classroom implications. In R. McClure (Ed.), Learning and thinking styles: Classroom interaction. Washington, DC: National Education Association. 

Taylor, E. W. (1998). The theory and practice of transformative learning: A critical review. (Information Series No. 374). Columbus, OH: ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult, Career, &Vocational Education, Center on Education and Training for Employment, College of Education, the Ohio State University. 

Von Glaserfeld, E. (1990). An exposition of Constructivism: Why some like it radical. In R.B. Davis, C. A. Maher and N. Noddings (Eds), Constructivism views on the teaching and learning of mathematics (pp 19 – 29). Reston, Virginia: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. 

Vygotsky, L.S. (1978). Mind in Society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 

Watson, J. (1913). Psychology as the Behaviorist Views it. Psychological Review, 20, 158-177. 

Watson, J. (1928). The ways of behaviorism. New York, NY: Harper & Brothers Pub. 

Welton, M. (1993). The contribution of critical theory to our understanding of adult learning. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 57, 81-90. 
(article in purple folder) Historical Roots of Gestalt Therapy 

Wertheimer, M. (1923).Laws of Organization in Perceptual Forms.Retrieved 10/19/03 from from 

Wertheimer, M. (1924). Gestalt Theory. Retrieved 11/2/2002 from the Gestalt Archive, 

Wilson, B. G. & Myers, K. M. (1999). Situated Cognition in Theoretical and Practical Context. For inclusion in D. Jonassen & S. Lands (Eds.), Theoretical Foundations of Learning Environments. Mahwah NJ: Erlbaum. Retrieved 3/21/03 from 

Wulf, R. (1996). The historical roots of Gestalt Therapy Theory. Retrieved 11/2/2002 from the World Wide Web, 

domingo, 1 de junho de 2014

Curiosidade 5w 2h

Muita gente trabalha com 5w 2h:

What – O que será feito (etapas)
Why – Por que será feito (justificativa)
Where – Onde será feito (local)
When – Quando será feito (tempo)
Who – Por quem será feito (responsabilidade)
How – Como será feito (método)
How much – Quanto custará fazer (custo)

Mas hoje, sem querer, encontrei a provável inspiração para ele!

O romancista, poeta e ganhador do prêmio nobel (e autor do controverso poema "White Man's Burden") Rudyard Kipling escreveu

"I keep six honest serving-men
(They taught me all I knew);
Their names are What and Why and When
And How and Where and Who. ”

Sem muito esforço é possível perceber que ele concebeu um esquema 5w 1h para se construir estórias (ou história). A administração só precisou incluir a variável de custo!

* Kipling possivelmente se inspirou na retórica Aristotélica.

quarta-feira, 28 de maio de 2014

500 palavras por minuto?

Apareceram já há algum tempo movimentos como o "Cultura do Slow Down" (WIKIPEDIA) ou "Slow Attitude", donde vem a ideia de Slow Food, que preconizam a qualidade de vida em vias de se aumentar a produção... Uma espécie de welfare State adaptado à indústria?

... Mas vim falar de velocidade!

Aí eu dei de cara com esse Spritz. Se informação é o que tudo o que nos ajuda a navegar pela complexidade da vida atual, quanto mais informação boa, melhor? Como avaliar se a informação é boa? Rapidamente: pela avaliação da fonte (difícil nos dias de hoje onde as "mídias corporativas" estão desacreditadas) e pelo acesso e verificação direta, isto é, lendo/vendo/ouvindo/tateando...

O "método spritz" propõe que é possível ler 500 palavras por minuto". Talvez uma pessoa treinada possa fazer isso na forma de leitura transversal ou sei lá o quê, mas a ideia do Spritz é proporcionar isto artificialmente por meio de computação gráfica - ao invés de longo treinamento para tornar-se um leitor à jato, a estrutura visual (ver o gif abaixo) capacitaria o leitor a atingir tal velocidade.

"The time consuming part of reading lies mainly in the actual eye movements from word to word and sentence to sentence. In addition, traditional reading simply takes up a lot of physical space. Spritz solves both of these problems. First, your eyes do not have to move from word to word or around the page that you’re reading. In fact, there’s no longer a page – with Spritz you only need 13 total characters to show all of your content. Fast streaming of text is easier and more comfortable for the reader, especially when reading areas become smaller. Spritz’s patent-pending technology can also be integrated into photos, maps, videos, and websites for more effective communication." (

You can read up to 500 words per minute

Não sei se esse treco funciona mesmo - apesar do exemplo deles ser tranquilo de ler, eu penso numa versão em português: imagine ler uma pergunta... só vai saber que é pergunta ao ver o "?" numa fração de segundo no final da frase... - mas a ideia é bem interessante.

quarta-feira, 7 de maio de 2014

Nova língua

Por acaso vi a chamada da mais recente novela da Globo, e ela me deixou intrigado - mas não o suficiente para arriscar assistir ao folhetim.

A chamada contava que um dos personagens principais criou um computador (ou seria um software?) que ensina crianças a programarem - e ele trabalha numa ONG que gira em torno disso.

Ok. Há versões do Raspberry PI que foram pensadas para auxiliarem crianças na aprendizagem de programação - talvez o(s) autore(s) tenham pensando nisso.

A questão que me veio foi: a gente está num país onde as crianças mal sabem ler ou escrever! Será que estão capacitadas para lidar com linguagens formais e embasadas na mais exigente lógica? Mas isso não vem ao caso...

Há algum tempo eu vi uma charge - creio que do Alpino, mas procurei sem sucesso por ela - mais ou menos assim: o pai comenta com a esposa em frente ao filho pequeno - Doutor nada! Ele vai aprender a fazer aplicativos!

Isso certamente se refletia à febre dos aplicativos milionários...

Me lembra também de uma cena do Velocidade Máxima 2 (argh) quando o protagonista fala que queria aprender uma nova língua, mas como fala inglês -  daí, deduz-se, prescinde de outras - resolveu aprender linguagem de sinais...

Mas o que isso tudo tem a ver? Sei lá!

Vamos lá:
Saber programar será "trunfo profissional" das gerações atuais/vindouras (como já foi - lista temporal decrescente - o inglês; saber usar softwares da microsoft; datilografia; escrever; ter dentes...)?

quinta-feira, 1 de maio de 2014

GOG e preservação digital

A grande maioria das publicações sobre preservação digital conclui ou indica que preservar objetos digitais (originais ou digitalizados) é muito mais caro do que preservar os não digitais.

Eu sempre tenho dúvidas quanto ao custo maior, pois os benefícios de digitalizar acervos não são desprezíveis. É uma questão de custo benefício que só quem está por dentro de questões técnicas, conceituais e orçamentárias pode pensar em responder...

Mas será que o custo ainda é tão gritantemente maior?

A empresa GOG (Good old Games) oferece jogos antigos adaptados para rodar em hardware e software atuais (windows 8, por exemplo) por preços entre 3 e 50 dólares. Se considerarmos que a GOG provavelmente ainda paga licença aos criadores dos jogos, a política de preços pode indicar que atualizar¹ objetos digitais não é mais tão proibitiva...

1 - Eles atualizam jogos para rodarem em pcs novos, mas creio que eles utilizem algum tipo de emulação (invisível) para fazer jogos DOS rodarem no Windows sem qualquer tipo de configuração - basta instalar.

Técnica de migração que consiste em copiar os dados de um suporte para
outro sem mudar sua codificação para evitar perdas de dados provocadas
por deterioração do suporte.

Utilização de recursos computacionais que fazem uma tecnologia
funcionar com as características de outra, aceitando as mesmas entradas
e produzindo as mesmas saídas.

  ©Template por Dicas Blogger Modificado por mim!